장골 정맥 압박증후군에 대한 혈관내 치료
The Endovascular Treatment for Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome
Korean J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2005; 21(1): 34-39
Published online November 30, -0001
Copyright © The Korean Society for Vascular Surgery.
Purpose: Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), first characterized by Cockett and Thomas in 1965, is the development of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis due to compression of the left common iliac vein against the spine and pelvic brim by the right common iliac artery. Thrombectomy treatment of the underlying compression is essential if significant long-term sequelae are to be avoided. Surgical treatment options include venous reconstruction or venous bypass, but treatment using endovascular techniques have recently been described. This study was conducted to evaluate the usability of endovascular treatment (esp. thrombolysis with stent insertion) in a venous outflow obstruction resulting from IVCS. Method: During a 2-year period, 20 patients (17 women, 3 men; mean age, 60 years) presented with clinical and imaging findings consistent with IVCS. All patients presented with leg edema or pain. The mean duration of symptom onset was 6.6⁑4.4 days, ranging from 1 to 15 days. All patients were evaluated using a Duplex scan, computerized tomography and venography. After the ascending venography had been performed, an infusion catheter system was placed, and urokinase infused locally into the thrombus burden. After near complete clot dissolution, the residual left common iliac vein stenosis was treated by means of angioplasty and the placement of a Wallstent. All patients continued to receive oral warfarin. Patients were followed-up by means of clinical visits, and the stent patency was assessed by means of a Duplex scan or computerized tomography. Result: The total dose of urokinase used and the duration of infusion were 2.28⁑0.93 million unit, ranging from 1.00 to 5.20 and 46.8⁑14.8 hours, ranging from 14 to 72 hours, respectively. Grade III (complete lysis) thrombolysis was achieved in 17 patients. All 17 patients successfully received a Wallstent. The initial clinical success was 100%, with complete resolution of symptoms in all patients. One patient, with combined ovarian cancer, had a recurrent symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and complete occlusion of the stent due to thrombosis 2 months after treatment. However, no other patients showed evidence of deep vein thrombosis after treatment. The overall patency rate of the stenting at 18 months was 94.1%. There were no deaths, pulmonary embolism, cerebral hemorrhage or major bleeding complications. Conclusion: These results suggested that the treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome, using catheter directed thrombolytic therapy and venous stent insertion, was a safe and effective method at the mid term evaluation. These patients will continue to be followed up with screening tests to further define the long-term patency.
Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), Endovascular treatment