Reported cases of malignancy-related iliofemoral venous obstruction
|Etiologic cancer||Involved vein||Used stent (mm)||Outcome|
|Tadayon et al. , 2021||1||66||Papillary urothelial cancer of bladder||REIV||SES, Venovo (12×80)||Symptom relief, patent stent at 6 months.|
|Taslakian et al. , 2018||1||73||Bladder and prostate cancer||RCIV, REIV and RCFV||SES, Venovo (16×90, 14×60, 10×40)||Symptom improvement, died 2 months later.|
|Maleux et al. , 2016||19||63.6||Malignanciesa and unknown causes||IFV or IVC||SES, Wallstent, Zilver, Bard (12, 14, 20 diameters)||Symptom improvement in 18 patients during postoperative period, 17 patients died after 24 months.|
|O’Sullivan et al. , 2015||62||60.4±15.4||Metastatic pelvic diseaseb||IFV and/or IVC||SES, Wallstent, Zilver Vena, Bard Luminexx, sinus-Venous, Cordis Smart (12-18 diameter)||Patients experienced better quality of life and decreased LES; 60 patients died due to underlying malignancies.|
|O’Sullivan et al. , 2013||20c||59±17||Malignancy and pelvic massd||LCIV, RCIV, RCFV, LCFV, LEIV, and REIV||SES, Zilver Vena (14-16×60-100-140)||3 patients experienced early stent thrombosis, improvement of LES was observed in other patients.|
|Hama et al. , 2005||1||70||Right ureteral carcinoma||Bilateral iliac veins and IVC||SES, Wallstent (12×90, 10×40 and 8×70)+balloon-expandable stents, Palmaz Genesis (8×30)||The stent remained patent after 5 months of follow-up.|
|Takai et al. , 2000||1||66||Endometrial cancer||REIV||SES, Memotherm, Bard (10×70)||Symptom improvement for 10 months until the patient died.|
|Carlson et al. , 1995||10||56||Gynecologic malignanciese||LCIV, RCIV, RCFV, LEIV, and REIV||SES, Gianturco and Wallstent (15-20 diameter)||The patency of stents was 100% beyond 6 months of follow-up. LES was improved. Two patients died due to malignancy.|
|Antonucci et al. , 1992||3||–||Metastasis of cervical cancer and ovarian carcinoma||LCIV and IVC||SES, Wallstent (10-14×50-150, 25 diameter for IVC)||Patent stents at 6-9-month follow-up.|
Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.
REIV, right external iliac vein; SES, self-expandable stent; RCIV, right common iliac vein; RCFV, right common femoral vein; IFV, iliofemoral vein; IVC, inferior vena cava; LES, lower extremity swelling; LCIV, left common iliac vein; LCFV, left common femoral vein; LEIV, left external iliac vein.
aPatients’ initial cancer: transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urethra, prostate cancer, TCC of bladder, adenocarcinoma of rectum, penile carcinoma, soft tissue sarcoma; bTypes of cancer affecting the patients: ovarian, breast, prostate, pancreatic, cervical, colon, lung, bladder, endometrial, lymphoma, penile, testicular, groin, liver, rhabdomyosarcoma, renal, gastric, mesothelioma, melanoma, retroperitoneal liposarcoma, and unknown causes; cTen patients with active malignancies; dMalignancies included bladder, prostate, ovarian, cervical, TCC, endometrial, retroperitoneal, and breast cancers; eVulvar, cervical, ovarian, uterine, and vaginal cancers.